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Memorable events in History

There are many events in history that have led to a scenario that has suddenly turned the tide of history. Sulaiman ibn Abdul Malik's accession to the caliphate in Damascus in 6 AH and the subsequent return of Qutaybah ibn Muslim from the borders of China, Tariq ibn Ziyad from France and Muhammad ibn Qasim's return after the conquest of Sindh are examples of this. Later, although Islam reached India through Turkish and Afghan conquerors, the borders of the Islamic world could not go beyond Kashgar (East Turkestan) even after fourteen hundred years after the withdrawal from the borders of China and France. He joined Islam.
In addition, the tragic defeat and capture of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid Yildirim at the hands of Emir Timur in the Battle of Ankara in 1402 AD was an event that suddenly turned the tide of history and resulted in the desire to conquer the whole of Europe. It became a dream of the Ottoman Turks.

Similarly, it is said that if Napoleon had not been defeated at Waterloo in 1815, the world might not have suffered the devastation of World Wars I and II.
Today we are talking about a similar battle which took place on the 25th of Ramadan 658 AH (1260 AH) at the site of Ain Goliath between Egypt and Syria and as a result the Islamic world which was apparently on the verge of destruction. He escaped complete ruin, let alone the general public. Our educated class also knows very little about the "Battle of Goliath" and its hero, "Sultan Rukn-ud-Din Beybers." As a result, not only did the Islamic world find new life politically, but the most serious threat to the sanctity of the two holy shrines was averted.

Thirteenth century political scenario
To understand the significance of the battle of Goliath, one has to look at the political landscape of the thirteenth century AD. This century was very turbulent for the Islamic world and the number of Muslims martyred in this century may not have been martyred before or after it. To this day (the beginning of the 21st century AD in modern times, although so far the same situation has prevailed for Muslims.) However, the storm that arose from Mongolia in 1219 AD in the thirteenth century AD swept away ten million Muslims. went . Genghis Khan first destroyed the great historical empire of China, then he turned to the areas beyond Transylvania, from Samarkand, Bukhara, Tashkent, Moro and Nisa to Herat in Khorasan and from Neshapur to the Indus River. Stories of destruction and devastation spread to the coastal areas of After Central Asia and China, Eastern Europe and Russia fell victim to Genghis Khan. After the death of Genghis Khan in 1227, Oktai Khan succeeded him. In 1246, Gaik Khan, son of Oktai Khan, was elected the third Khaqan-e-Azam and in 1251, Mango Khan, the son of Tuli Khan, became the fourth Khaqan. Despite Khaqan's changes, the Mongol Empire continued to invade the surrounding areas, and now began to target other nations besides Muslims, including Europeans and Russians.

In 1258, Hulagu Khan, as governor of Mango Khan, invaded Baghdad and overthrew the Abbasid Caliphate. Along with Baghdad, Mosul, Aleppo and Damascus were also conquered by Hulagu Khan. With the exception of Damascus (where the ruler had an agreement with Hulagu Khan), most Iraqi and Syrian cities were targeted, such as Baghdad. Thus the Tatar invasion spread from Central Asia to Iran, Afghanistan, China, Russia and most of India, Eastern Europe, Syria, Palestine and Iraq and reached the gates of Egypt. In 1241, the Mongols invaded Lahore and overthrew the city. Batu Khan had conquered Bulgaria in 1237, and in 1241 he defeated the Germans at Leighitz Liegentz. In the same year, the Mongols also defeated King Hungary. In short, by the middle of the thirteenth century, the Mongols had spread from Central Asia to all sides, and their massacres and conquests continued everywhere. The Mongol Empire was divided into four parts, but the Mongol Khan was still considered the ruler of the whole empire.

In such a situation, Hulagu Khan with an army of 300,000 locusts conquered the cities of Iraq, Syria and Palestine and invaded Egypt. After Egypt, the Mongol threat now came directly to the holy land of the Hijaz, which was inhabited by the cities of Mecca and Medina. That is, if Hulagu Khan had also conquered Egypt, then there would have been no significant government in his way to the holy places of Hijaz. According to 1260 AH, during the holy month of Ramadan in 658 AH, the border area between Egypt and Syria was called Ain Goliath. Hulagu Khan's army of 300,000 was standing in front of the small contingent of 20,000 of the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt.

Mamluk Sultan of Egypt
After the political scene of the thirteenth century AD, let us now get a brief introduction to the Mamluk Empire which not only became the center of the Islamic world in the form of the Abbasid Caliphate of Cairo after the end of the Caliphate of Baghdad but also the Crusades for three hundred years. She defended Jerusalem against the nomads.
Characteristic of Islamic history is that Muslims have never treated slaves the way they were treated in Western countries from the time of the Romans until the last century. As a result of giving equal status to slaves in Islamic society, slavery reached the highest level of religious and worldly development.

The Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and the Indian slave family consisted of slave chiefs who developed and became rulers at the time. Egypt was ruled by naval and Burmese Mamluk rulers for three hundred years. At the time of succession, there would have been a fierce struggle between these sultans and the powerful slave would have become Amir Sultan. That is, the son could not get the government as his successor.

Sultan Rakn al-Din Beybers
In 1223, a son was born to a courtier of Kharazm Shah and his name was changed to Mahmood. Khawarizm Shah got angry with this courtier over something and he was imprisoned. That's how this noble family came into circulation. At the same time, the kingdom of Khwarezm was attacked by Genghis Khan and the Tartars began to enslave and sell Muslim children and soldiers as slaves. Mahmud, like these children, continued to be enslaved and sold by various hands, and finally to Egypt. Brought to market. Through various hands in Egypt, a virtuous woman named Mahmoud Fatima was taken into custody. Fatima had a son named Beavers. Mahmoud's form was similar to that of the boy Beavers, so Fatima changed Mahmoud's name to Beavers and adopted him as her son. One of Fatima's brothers was attached to the court of Sultan-ul-Mulk Saleh Najmuddin of Egypt. When he met Bebers, he took him to the court of the Cairo Sultan. Sultan-ul-Mulk Saleh had taken several orphaned boys under his care. The boys were well educated, fed, and trained in combat. In this way these boys would become loyal to the Sultan and would be included in the Sultan's personal army. (The same method was later adopted by the Turks, and the legendary army of the Ottoman sultans, "Annie Cheri", consisted of such slave boys.)

In any case, Mahmoud joined the Egyptian army under the direct training of the Sultan of Egypt under the name of Pakrr-ud-Din Beybers and became the leader of the Egyptian army because of his ability and skill.
25 Ramadan 658 6
The site of Ain Goliath, which borders Egypt, Syria and Palestine, is a landmark. This field is called Goliath because here David defeated a tyrant named Goliath. Allah Almighty has described this battle in Surah Al-Baqarah.

Translation: "And David killed Goliath and Allah gave him kingdom and wisdom and taught him whatever he wanted."
(Al-Baqarah: verse number: 251)

The exact meaning of Goliath is "spring of Goliath" and in this area in 658 AH, Hulagu Khan was invading Egypt with an army of 300,000. The ruler of Egypt at that time was Mamluk Sultan Saifuddin Qatz and Rukn al-Din Beybers was its general. Sultan Qatz's army was in no way able to counter Lashkar-e-Jarrar's 300,000 and now the defeat of Egypt meant that Hulagu Khan had access to the cities of the Holy Hijaz and the Holy Shrines and then to the Muslim territories of Morocco, North Africa and Andalusia again!
But on this occasion, Allah Almighty saved the world of Islam. A miracle happened and Hulagu Khan had to return to Karakoram with a large part of his army. The fourth Khaqan of Karakoram, Azam Mango Khan, died, and Tatar princes from all over the world left for Karakoram to attend the central jirga of Karakoram, called Karoltai. Hulagu Khan handed over an army of twenty thousand to his deputy Katbagha Khan and returned to Karakoram.

It is important to mention here this threatening letter which was written by the Tatars to Qatz, this letter was written by Hulagu Khan or by Yaktbagha Khan. There are various traditions in history about this. However, the Tatar ambassador presented the letter to Sultan Qatz.
This is the decree of the Lord of the worlds: Destroy your shelters, accept obedience. If you do not obey, then what will happen to you is nothing but the lofty and eternal sky. I know.

It is probable that the letter was sent by Hulagu Khan before his departure for Karakoram, in which a clear declaration of war was made. However, the Tatar ambassador reluctantly threw the letter to the Sultan of Egypt. Seeing this, the eyes of the Sultan of Egypt and Rukn-ud-Din Bebers turned red with anger. When the contents of the letter were read to the Sultan, the Sultan told the ambassador that he had no quarrel with Hulagu Khan, so he should leave us alone and go back. The ambassador replied,
"So it is as if you want the same resurrection that we have done to your caliph." Know that the power of our Lord is infinite and no power in the world can match it.
Seeing this manner of the Tatar ambassador, the Sultan of Egypt became furious and said ...
"The tongues of these Tatars should be pulled out of their assholes and they should be killed. That is the answer to our letter. "
 
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